Anticancer Effects of Different Extracts of Various Antrodia Cinnamomea Types on Human Liver Hepg2 Cells and Analyses of Compositions and Bioactivities
Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a medicinal fungus found locally in Taiwan. Many studies have confirmed that AC is rich in triterpenoids, polysaccharides and other nutrients that may carry functional properties such as detoxification, anti-inflammatory activity, liver function improvement and anti-cancer activity. White AC is thought to be relatively rare and is therefore expensive; it has a greater content of functional compounds than regular forms of AC. Thus, this study was performed in order to develop an ideal culture medium and to compare the contents of bioactive compounds, including triterpenes and polysaccharides, and medicinal functions, such as effects on free-radicals (DPPH) and anti-B liver cancer cells (MTT assay) of the regular form (red AC), the white variant of AC, wild-type red AC in a Petri-dish culture medium, and Basswood AC. The study results showed that the homemade medium enhanced the crude triterpenoid content of mycelia and basidiomatal formation of AC under Petri-dish solid-state fermentation. The polysaccharides contents of regular and white AC were higher in the homemade medium than in the commercial medium. The antioxidant effects (DPPH) of white and red AC in the Petri-dish culture were greater than that of Basswood white AC (culture growth only for 1 month). In addition, it was found that addition of peptone to the culture medium increased the contents of DeEA, DeSA, antcin B and antcin H. Anti-B cancer cell tests showed that approximately 50% inhibition was achieved at 62.5 μg/mL. The wild-type AC fruiting bodies extract concentration was higher than 125 μg/mL, and the anti-B cancer cell effect was over 80%. The results showed that wild-type red AC also exhibited good anti-cancer effects. However, these fungi are not easy to obtain, and 2–3 years are required for the development of fruiting bodies; in addition, other issues must be overcome during culture, such as infection. This study demonstrated the development of a suitable culture medium for solid-state fermentation of AC products that confer protective effects against B liver cancer cells, which has potential applications in the healthcare industry.
Keywords- Antrodia cinnamomea, HPLC; Triterpenoids, Solid-state fermentation, MTT assay.