Prevalence And Antimicrobial Sensitivity Profile Of Salmonella Typhimurium And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Cattle Feces, Drainage And Waste Water At Gombe Abattoir Environment In Nigeria
Meat processing industries (Abattoir) are generally less sophisticated in developing countries, like Nigeria which may lead to serious environmental issues including introduction microbes into the soil surface and ground water. The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial profile of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium in cattle feces, drainage and waste water. A Total of one hundred and fifty (150) samples were collected for the research. Total bacterial counts for the samples have shown that the drainage samples had highest cfu/ml (4.4x106) while the fecal had the lowest (2.7x106). Bacterial culture results obtained using Sorbitol MacConkey agar revealed that the prevalence of E. coli O157: H7 was highest in drainage sample (45%) followed by the fecal sample (44%). For S. typhimurium the biochemical tests showed that the prevalence was highest in fecal samples (44%) and lowest value was observed in the waste water sample. Results from serological tests revealed that the prevalence of E.coli O157:H7 was highest in fecal sample (40%) and lowest (27%) in waste water. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of E. coli O157:H7 showed that the organism was 100% susceptible to Gentamicin, 83% to Ofloxacin and 79% to Sparfloxacin. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be completely resistant to Cotrimoxazole. Salmonella typhimurium was highly susceptible to Gentamicin (100%) and moderately susceptible to Streptomycin (52%) and Sparfloxacin (48%) but 100% resistant to Cotrimoxazole, Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin. High prevalence rates of E.coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium were observed in the samples in an indication of poor sanitation. The antimicrobial resistance was an indication of possible resistance gene transfer. Further studies may be required to uncover more on the prevalence and resistance using newer biotechnological techniques.
Keywords: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp, waste water, Antimicrobials, Environment.