Paper Title
Water Quality And Molecular Phylogeny Of Rasbora, Esomus And Bacteria Diversity In Shiva Cave, Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand

Abstract
The aims of this study were to examine the water quality and phylogenetic tree of fish (Rasbora and Esomus) and bacteria based on CO1 gene and 16s rDNA gene, respectively, in Shiva Cave, Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand. In this study, physical and chemical parameters were assessed to qualify six sampling waters in rainy season. The results revealed that the values of pH, dissolved oxygen, resistivity and, conductivity were 7.24-7.45, 6.64-7.61 mg/L, 4.35-5.80 Ωcm and, 175.83-235.50 µs/cm, respectively, which accorded to standard water quality of Thailand. Likewise, total dissolved solids from all sampling sites were also comparable to the standard. The values of salinity and total hardness of the water were higher than the standard as 0.11-0.80 ppt and 233.75-316.25 mg/L, respectively. The phylogenetic tree based on CO1 gene showed a minor difference in their DNA sequences of each R. borapetansis, R. paviei and E. metalicus collected from cave and paddy fields. Bacterial diversity were also assessed from sediments of middle part in this cave using 16s rDNA pyrosequencing analysis. The results showed that 13 phyla (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Caldithrix, Chlamydia, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes and Verrucomicrobia) consisted of 116 genus and more than 60% of bacterial DNA sequences could not be classified. Proteobacteria was a predominant group in this cave followed by Actinobacteria, Verucomicrobia, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes and Acidobacteria, respectively. Bacterial diversity from sediments of this Shiva cave represented as a common soil bacteria as described before. This data will support knowledge of environment, evolution of biodiversity and be useful indicator in water cave. Keyword— CO1, Shiva cave, bacteria diversity, water quality.