Paper Title
Comparison Studies of Fatty Acids Profiles Extracted From Selected Malaysian Seawater and Freshwater Fish Wastes

Abstract
Owing to the favorable effects of essential fatty acids on human health, a great degree of interest on fatty acid profiles in fish species have been developed in recent years. The present study investigates the total oil content, fatty acid profiles and physicochemical characteristics of wastes from local seawater and freshwater fish using Soxhlet extraction method. The seawater fish species selected were Sardinella lemuru, Scomber scombrus, Megalaspis cordyla and Decapterus macarellus, whereas Clarias gariepinus, Pangasius sutchi, Oreochromis Niloticus and Channa striata are presented freshwater fish species. The highest total oil of 12.68±0.98% was found in seawater fish from Sardinella lemuru, while the highest total oil from freshwater fish was from Clarias gariepinus, 14.22%. The fatty acid profiles, EPA and DHA present in both species, with the highest amount of DHA and EPA achieved from seawater fish Megalaspis cordyla were 12.52% and 15.75%, respectively. As for the freshwater fish, Pangasius sutchi revealed the highest value of EPA and DHA content at 6.48% and 2.05%, followed by 5.98% DHA and 5.98% EPA obtained in Oreochromis niloticus. The highest iodine value of 177.95±3.04mg was found in the seawater fishes Megalaspis cordyla. Results obtained in this study indicated differences in fatty acid profiles of both species, and that fish oils extracted from fish wastes are remarkable potential local source of PUFA due to high contents of EPA and DHA. Index Terms— Fish oil, free fatty acids, fish waste, Soxhlet extraction.