Paper Title
Determination of Physicochemical Parameters and Some Heavy Metals in Water Samples From Challawa River And Wassai Dam in Kano State, Nigeria

Abstract
Physicochemical parameters and level of some trace metals in water from Wasse dam, Challawa, Daba and Tasa rivers located in Kano, Nigeria were seasonally studied for dry and rainy seasons. The water quality parameters which includes PH, Temperature, Conductivity, Total Solids (TS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Turbidity, Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Alkalinity and heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. The results of physicochemical analysis indicate certain degree of pollution at the four sampling sites. The results showed the following ranged , Temperature (18.00 44.34oc), PH(6.00 9.15), Conductivity (86.00 2336.00s/cm), Total Solids (52.00 3489mg/L), Total Dissolved solid (35.00 1169mg/L), Total Suspended Solids(16.00 2206.00mg/L), Turbidity (2.42745.00mg/L), Hardness (36.00 167.36mg/L), Dissolved Oxygen (1.23 8.46mg/L), Biological Oxygen Demand (0.27 5.78mg/L) and Total Alkalinity (30.00 1250.00mg/L). Recovery experiment was carried out to validate the experimental procedure in order to ascertain the efficiency, reliability and precision of digestion method used for the analysis of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples by and atomic absorption spectrometry. Percentage recovery of the samples analyzed are in the following sequence:- water, Fe>Mn=Cu>Zn>Pb>Cr=Ni>Cd>Co. Heavy metals ranged in water, Cd (0.01 0.09mg/l), Co (0.02 0.93mg/l), Cr (0.02 0.92mg/l), Cu (0.05 1.08mg/l), Fe(0.08 27.00mg/l), Mn (0.01 3.45mg/l), Ni (0.05 0.63mg/l), Pb (0.01 0.80mg/l) and Zn (0.03 0.96mg/l) The concentration of Cd ,Co,Cr,Fe,Mn,Ni and Pb have exceeded the WHO standard limits of Cd 0.01mg/l, Co 0.01mg/l, Cr 0.05mg/l, Fe 0.3mg/l, Mn 0.1 mg/l, Pb 0.05 mg/l, while the concentration of Cu and Zn are below WHO standard limits of 1.0 mg/l and 5.0 mg/l respectively. Most of the values obtained were higher during dry season with Fe and Zn having the highest concentration in all the water samples analyzed. The presence of heavy metals in the entire samples analyzed at the four sampling sites indicates high level of pollution in the areas. Keywords- Physicochemical parameters, Heavy metals, Percentage recovery, Wassai, Challawa, Kano Nigeria.