Problem-Based Learning Approach in Physics
In order to cope well with challenges in real life situations, students need to learn the critical skills of investigating and responding to complex questions or problems. Anchored on this goal of preparing life-long learners, this study determined the performance of students using Problem-Based Learning Approach in teaching Physics. This study, which used the one-shot group pretest-posttest experimental research design, integrated collaborative learning and differentiated instruction. The respondents of this study were high school students of DMMMSU-SLUC Laboratory High School for the school year 2012-2013. They worked with their groupmates and performed different tasks that require different outputs. The pretest-posttest, periodic test, reports, presentations, participation, and projects which were assessed through rubrics were used as bases in determining studentsí performance. Majority of the students had superior IQ which implies that they are good achievers and they excel in their academics. However, multiple intelligence theory suggested that learners have their own kind of intelligence which cannot be measured solely by IQ test. Since there are various kinds of intelligences, there should also be different learning styles. The students had varied learning styles and multiple intelligences. So, learners should be grouped with different learning styles and MI to maximize participation of different learners and promote collaborative learning. The students improved a lot from their pretest with mean score of 71.63 to their posttest with mean score of 85.19. There was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores as seen in the t-test result. This showed that they developed understanding of the fundamental knowledge, skills and core understanding, and can transfer them independently through authentic performance tasks. The mean grade of 88.64 in their periodic test manifested a high comprehension of the lessons taken. The students performed very satisfactorily in their reports, presentations, role play, road safety brochure, magic show, science model, creative output, creative mobile and participation. Making of outputs/projects not only motivates learners but also develops skills and enhances critical thinking through hands-on manipulation of things. Furthermore, these activities had evidently promoted differentiated instruction wherein individual differences among learners were catered and considered in various outputs. The IQ of the students had a significant relationship with their pretest, posttest and periodic test scores. This means that a learner with higher IQ will likely perform better than a learner with a lower IQ. However, their MI and learning style had no significant relationship with their performances. This implies that learning preferences, as to learning style and MI, cannot determine the academic performance of the students in group and individual activities. Using frequency count, percentage, mean, Pearson r, and t-test in treating the data, this study showed significant improvement on the performance of the students as reflected in their pretest and posttest and their other tasks. This implies that Problem-Based Learning is an effective approach in teaching Physics.
Index Terms- Collaborative Learning, Differentiated Instruction, Physics, Problem-Based.