Comparative Evaluation of Mathematics Questions of a National Exam (TEOG) and an International Exam (PISA) Within The Context of Teaching Principles
The purpose of this study is to evaluate mathematics questions on a national exam (i.e., TEOG) and an international exam (i.e., Program for International Student Assessment [PISA]) within the context of teaching principles. A survey model was used as the research model. The sample comprised 20 academics of the department of mathematics education of several universities in Turkey and 100 mathematics teachers of secondary schools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected: the former by document analysis, and the latter by questionnaires. The PISA questions were more relevant to teaching principles compared with the TEOG questions. In conclusion, the PISA questions were in line with the principles of actuality and closeness to existing life, whereas the TEOG items were more in line with the principles of clarity. In addition, differences were observed in the tests’ degrees of difficulty. The PISA mathematical literacy comprises items at the analysis and synthesis level that require higher-order skills and multiple skills, have high discrimination power, and are related to daily life, whereas the TEOG comprises standard items at a beginner level that can be solved using algebraic operations, have low discrimination power, and are unrelated to daily life. Based on the results of the study recommendations are as follows: national exams should include questions that require high-level skills and improve reasoning skills, and the activities that address the high-level skills and are related to daily life problems (e.g., activities in PISA and TIMMS) should be used in curriculums and written exams.
Keywords - PISA, TEOG, Comparison of Questions, Teaching Principle