Smart Control Algorithms for Microgrid Status Detection, Optimization and Protection
Formation of microgrids (μGs) architectures and smart grid concepts is the recent targeted revolution toward fully smart electrical network integrated with high penetration of renewable energy sources. This revolution required development to reach full autonomous operation of μGs to achieve technical, economic and environmental benefits of μGs. So, μGscontroller should distinguish operating modes (normal, transients and faulted) cases. μG concept has various technical challenges especially on its control and protection system due to high transients and (generation, loads and topology) dynamicson which conventional state-estimation and overcurrent protection scheme suffer malfunctioning and problem of μG online status detection is a raised to achieve μGs operational benefits and serving μG protection system to accurately define transient, abnormal and faulted conditions. In this paper full smartconversion is proposedfor microgrid subsystems. This includessmart protection system, smart control algorithms with the ability to track fast system dynamics.A smart status detector modelis developed to integrate micro phasor measurement unit (μPMUs), Micro-Grid Central Controller (MGCC), Intelligent Electrical Devices (IEDs), Smart protective devices (SPDs) and communication architecture based on IEC 61850 for online data transfer between MGCC and power system field devices. The status detector methodology is presented based on continuous synchronized measurements generated by μPMUs. Different algorithms to define various normal and faulted cases are also presented.These algorithms aim at economically dispatching different Distributed generations (DGs) while responding to all types of system transient and faults with proper fault type discrimination and tripping selectivity.
Index Terms - Microgrids (μGs), Micro phasor measurement units (μPMUs), Status Coefficients, Renewable Energy Sources (RESs).