Optimal Sizing of a Stand-alone PV/Wind/ICE/Battery for Application of a University Campus in Bangladesh
Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) are becoming popular as stand-alone power systems for providing electricity in remote areas. Designing cost-effective and reliable HRES is very important for sustainable development. In this paper, a simulation of HRES is performed in order to optimize the cost of energy ($/kWh) and the lifecycle emission (kg CO2-eq/kWh/yr). In this regard, solar and wind energies, as well as battery bank and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) are used in different combinations. A power management strategy (PMS) is first developed with the help of an actual and dynamic load profile and metrological data for a given area. PMS is used to calculate the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), which is taken as a nonlinear constraint to achieve the desired reliability. An optimization scheme is developed by using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Optimum results are achieved by analyzing cost of energy and life cycle emissions for different combinations of renewable energy sources. The result of the study indicates that wind energy is relatively cheaper than other energy sources. Hybrid systems containing wind energy is found to be the lower cost, but with the expense of higher lifecycle emissions. Results also show the combination of PV-wind-battery-ICE would be a potential candidate if one considers the optimum cost of energy and moderate lifecycle emissions.
Index Terms - GA, HRES, LPSP, PMS